Contents
LaTeX in Instructorauthored sections
 Overview of features
 Inline/singleline equations
 Displaying multiline equations
 Fractions
 Matrices
 Calculus
LaTeX in Markdown (Instructor notes and Classic zyLabs)
 Overview
 Inline/singleline equations
 Displaying multiline equations
 Fractions
 Matrices
 Calculus
 Common mistakes
 Subscripts
 Strikeout
LaTeX in Instructorauthored sections
This subsection gives an overview of the LaTeX code that works within Instructorauthored sections.
These instructions will NOT apply to Instructor notes and Classic labs, as those use LaTeX inside of Markdown, so please navigate to the following subsection, LaTeX in Markdown (Instructor notes and Classic zyLabs).
Overview of features
 The following environments are supported by the zyBooks content creator:
 align  vertically aligns several equations
 cases  renders multiline equations with an extensible left curly brace, which can be used to display piecewise defined functions.
 gather  displays consecutive equations with no alignment
 The following environments are NOT supported by the zyBooks content creator:
 multline
 flalign
 center
 tabular
 Special characters such as >, <, and & should be entered as \gt, \lt, and \& respectively.
 The TeX shorthand $...$ that declares inline code does not work.
 Automatic equation numbering is suppressed by default and cannot be enabled.
Inline/singleline equations
The LaTeX shorthand that declares inline expressions and equations is
\(...\)
Example:
This equation \(x^23x+4=0\) is inline.
The LaTeX shorthand that declares displayed equations (i.e. equations that are on separate lines outside of normal text) is
\[...\]
Example:
The equation \[x^23x+4=0\] has a break and is centered.
The equation
has a break and is centered.
Displaying multiline equations
Multiline equations are displayed using the align, gather, and cases environments.
Align
The align environment has a tabular structure with the symbol & used as a column separator. The default alignment is right, left, right, .... Using && overrides the default alignment. Lines are separated using \\.
Example:
\[\begin{align} x^2 3x+4 &=0 \\ (x1)(x3)&=0 \\ x=1, x&=3 \end{align}\]
Example:
\[\begin{align}2(x+1) &= 8 &\text{}\\2x+2 &= 8 &&\text{Distribute 2 on the
left} \\2x&=6 && \text{Subtract 2 from both sides} \\ x&=3 && \text{Divide
both sides by 2}\end{align}\]
Example:
\[ \begin{align} \text{(1)} && \sin^2 \alpha + \cos^2 \alpha &= 1\\
\text{(2)} && 1 + \cot^2 \alpha &= \csc \alpha\\ \text{(3)} && \tan^2
\alpha + 1 &= \sec \alpha\\ \end{align} \]
Gather
The gather environment displays and centers each equation.
Example:
\[\begin{gather} y=mx+b \\ yy_1=m(xx_1) \\ Ax+By=C \end{gather}\]
Cases
The cases environment renders multiline equations with an extensible left curly brace. Columns are separated by the symbol & and lines are separated by \\.
Example:
\[f(x) = \begin{cases} x & \text{if } x \geq 0 \\ x &\text{if }x \lt 0\end{cases}\]
Fractions
The default style of mathematical operators and elements change depending on whether inline or displayed equation is used. Using the \displaystyle command before each element renders that element with the same style as a displayed equation.
Example:
\(\frac{3x^2}{\sin^2 x  1}\)
Example:
\[\frac{3x^2}{\sin^2 x  1}\]
Example:
\(\dfrac{3x^2}{\sin^2 x  1}\)
Example:
\(\displaystyle\frac{3x^2}{\sin^2 x  1}\)
If a smaller fraction is needed, \tfrac can be used.
Example:
\[\tfrac{x+2}{x5}\]
This fraction
is centered but still in the smaller type set.
Matrices
The matrix environment renders an array. Columns are separated by the symbol & and lines are separated by \\.
Example:
\[\begin{matrix} 2i &6 \\ 0 & 2x3 \end{matrix}\]
Other matrix environments are given in the table below.
Environment  Description  Example 

matrix  plain  
bmatrix  brackets  
vmatrix  pipes  
pmartix  parenthesis  
Bmatrix  curly braces  
Vmatrix  double pipes 
Calculus
Common symbols in calculus like integrals, limits, and sums are displayed using the code below.
Example:
\[\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} 2n \\ \lim_{x \rightarrow 0} x^2\\ \int_{2}^{5} (x^2 + 2x + 1)dx\]
Example:
\(\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} 2n \\ \lim_{x \rightarrow 0} x^2\\ \int_{2}^{5} (x^2 + 2x + 1)dx\)
Using the \limits command before each operator renders that operator with the same style as a displayed equation.
Example:
\(\sum\limits_{n=1}^{\infty}2n\\ \lim\limits_{x \rightarrow 0} x^2\\ \int\limits_{2}^{5} (x^2 + 2x + 1)dx \)
The \displaystyle command can also be used.
Example:
\(\displaystyle\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} 2n\\ \displaystyle \lim_{x \rightarrow 0} x^2\\ \displaystyle \int_{2}^{5} (x^2 + 2x + 1)dx\)
Other common symbols used in calculus are given in the table below.
LaTeX code  Output 

\iint  
\iint\limits_R  
\iiiint  
\int\dots\int  
\oint 
LaTeX in Markdown (Instructor notes and Classic zyLabs)
The following instructions apply to Classic zyLab and instructor notes specifically. Please see our articles on How to create a new zyLab (Classic) and How to add custom instructor notes for more details.
Overview
The Classic zyLab and instructor notes editor uses Markdown, so you may need to escape the Markdown characters in order for the LaTeX to render properly.
For example, the traditional LaTeX formatting to write an inline equation is,
\(...\)
However, to write an inline equation in LaTeX with Markdown, you would need to escape the backslashes.
For example, this code,
This is an equation \(x^2 + 1 = 10\)!
would render as,
Escaping the backslashes would render properly.
This is an equation \\(x^2 + 1 = 10\\)!
All the following examples will show the correct syntax with the escaped Markdown characters.
Inline/singleline equations
To declare inline expressions,
\\(...)\\
Example:
This equation \\(x^23x+4=0\\) is inline.
To display equations (i.e. equations that are on separate lines outside of normal text) is
\\[...\\]
or
$$...$$
Example:
The equation \\[x^23x+4=0\\] has a break and is centered.
The equation $$x^23x+4=0$$ has a break and is centered.
Displaying multiline equations
Multiline equations are displayed using the align, gather, and case environments.
Align
The align environment has a tabular structure with the symbol & used as a column separator.
Lines are separated using \\\.
Example:
\\[\begin{align} x^2 3x+4 &=0 \\\
(x1)(x3)&=0 \\\
x &= 1,3 \end{align}\\]
Example:
\\[\begin{align}2(x+1) &= 8 &\text{}\\\2x+2 &= 8 &&\text{Distribute 2 on the
left} \\\2x&=6 && \text{Subtract 2 from both sides} \\\ x&=3 && \text{Divide
both sides by 2}\end{align}\\]
Example:
\\[ \begin{align} \text{(1)} && \sin^2 \alpha + \cos^2 \alpha &= 1\\\
\text{(2)} && 1 + \cot^2 \alpha &= \csc \alpha\\\ \text{(3)} && \tan^2
\alpha + 1 &= \sec \alpha\\\ \end{align} \\]
Gather
The gather environment displays and centers each equation.
Example:
\\[\begin{gather} y=mx+b \\\ yy\_1=m(xx\_1) \\\ Ax+By=C \end{gather}\\]
Cases
The cases environment renders multiline equations with an extensible left curly brace. Columns are separated by the symbol & and lines are separated by \\.
Example:
\\[f(x) = \begin{cases} x & \text{if } x \geq 0 \\\ x &\text{if }x \lt 0\end{cases}\\\]
Fractions
The default style of mathematical operators and elements change depending on whether inline or displayed equation is used. Using the \displaystyle command before each element renders that element with the same style as a displayed equation.
Example:
\\(\frac{3x^2}{\sin^2 x  1}\\)
Example:
This fraction, \\[\frac{3x^2}{\sin^2 x  1}\\], is usi
Example:
This fraction, \\(\dfrac{3x^2}{\sin^2 x  1}\\), is inline.
Example:
This fraction, \\(\displaystyle\frac{3x^2}{\sin^2 x  1}\\), is using "\displaystyle".
If a smaller fraction is needed, \tfrac can be used.
Example:
This fraction \\[\tfrac{x+2}{x5}\\] is centered but still in the smaller type set.
Matrices
The matrix environment renders an array. Columns are separated by the symbol & and lines are separated by \\\.
Example:
\\[\begin{matrix} 2i &6 \\\ 0 & 2x3 \end{matrix}\\]
Other matrix environments are given in the table below.
Environment  Description  Example 

matrix  plain  
bmatrix  brackets  
vmatrix  pipes  
pmartix  parenthesis  
Bmatrix  curly braces  
Vmatrix  double pipes 
Calculus
Common symbols in calculus like integrals, limits, and sums are displayed using the code below.
Example:
\\[\sum\_{n=1}^{\infty} 2n \\\
\lim\_{x \rightarrow 0} x^2\\\
\int\_{2}^{5} (x^2 + 2x + 1)dx\\]
Example:
\\(\sum\_{n=1}^{\infty} 2n \\\
\lim\_{x \rightarrow 0} x^2\\\
\int\_{2}^{5} (x^2 + 2x + 1)dx\\)
Using the \limits command before each operator renders that operator with the same style as a displayed equation.
Example:
\\(\sum\limits\_{n=1}^{\infty}2n\\\
\lim\limits\_{x \rightarrow 0} x^2\\\
\int\limits\_{2}^{5} (x^2 + 2x + 1)dx \\)
The \displaystyle command can also be used.
Example:
\\(\displaystyle\sum\_{n=1}^{\infty} 2n\\)
...
Other common symbols used in calculus are given in the table below.
LaTeX code  LaTeX in Markdown example  Output 

\iint 
$$\iint$$ 

\iint\limits_R 
$$\iint\limits\_R$$ 

\iiiint 
$$\iiiint$$ 

\int\dots\int 
$$\int\dots\int$$ 

\oint 
$$\oint$$ 
Common mistakes
Using underscores for subscripts
Another common Markdown character to look out for is the underscore. Recall that Markdown italicizes any text that is surrounded by underscores.
For example, here we are trying to render a LaTeX equation that uses subscripts. This code,
This equation \(x_1  x_2\) is an example.
would render as,
If you look closely, you can see that the code surrounded by the underscores (1  x) is actually italicized. To fix this, you can escape the underscores.
This equation \\(x_1  x\_2\\) is an example.
This would be rendered as,
Strikeout
Recall in LaTeX that the command for strikeout is, \cancel.
Please note that you must require the \cancel package before using it or the strikeout may not render on the next page load.
Example:
$$\require{\cancel}\frac{a\bcancel{b}}{\bcancel{b}}=a$$